12 August 2014

Star Talk Radio with Neil DeGrasse Tyson anyone?


A shout to you who often listen to talk radio and is into astronomy.
Star Talk with Neil DeGrasse Tyson is a 24/7 podcast based radio all related to Astronomy.

Have a listen to these coherent, modern  and funny shows with special guess.
Listen to Star Talk Radio HERE 

You can also find Star Talk Radio in TuneIn for your mobile phone or tablet IOS or Android.


27 March 2014

The mighty Optical Ground Station Telescope, Tenerife, Canary Islands


Jyri Kuusela, Physicist Optical Ground Station (OGS)
Tenerife, Canary Islands 2014
background: OGS observatory patners

The OGS (Optical Ground Station) telescope, installed in the Teide Observatory, Tenerife, Canary Islands has been built by Carl Zeiss, is owned by ESA (European Space Agency) and is operated by the IAC (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias). More precisely a small 3 men crew sub-contractor led by Mr. Jyri Kuusela, an Finnish astrophysicist that has attempted also our local University of Turku, Finland is now operating this instrument of precision to observe the solar system. His company is in charge of the operations.

I had the chance to interview Mr. Kuusela at the OGS (Optical Ground Station) telescope at the Teide Observatory in Tenerife, Canary Islands. This is what he told me:

Since its building in 1991, the OGS telescope has been directed by the institute of Astrophysics of Canary Islands (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias). They helped achieve the requested observation mandated by ESA, the European Space Agency, but had reservations on the way it should be executed. That is where Mr. Kuusela comes in and applied for a solution to start a company to be sub-contracted by the Inst. Astrophysics. Canary Isl. To run the ESA agenda. Now few years later, the 3 men crew led by Jyri Kuusela and two more graduate works together to control the Optical Ground Station Telescope.

There are specific tasks to be done, for example this camera has to be installed today, says Mr. Kuusela with a smile.

OGS telescope in Teide Observatory
1 m Ritchey-Chretien / Coudé telescope
supported by an English-built mount
inside a dome 12.5 m in diameter.
 Mr. Kuusela mentioned the 3 most important investigations led by the OGS telescope were to conduct optical laser communication between this Optical Ground Station and a Satellite above in space. Also another important work with the telescope is the observation consecrated to space debris created by satellites on Geo-stationary orbit around the planet. These satellites are satellites we have send and have malfunctioned, caught on fire or exploded and now are space debris in this specific location of Geo-stationary orbits.
Their last invetigation they conduct with the telescope is to identify Near Earth Objects (Neo’s). Many new Neo’s has been identified by Mr. Kuusela and he’s crew from the total of almost 100,000 Near Earth Objects identified as of today, around the astronomy community. The OGS telescope is one of the few ESA telescopes that chase’s the NEO objects as part of the European Space Agency programs.

The future of the OGS telescope lies with the accountability of its findings says Mr. Kuusela. “What I mean is that this OGS telescope has to have good results to keep on going and this depends always on the operating body that is controlling it.” Mr. Kuusela knows his business.

When visiting the telescope he showed me the “basement of the instrument" there you could find a optical bench “table” where you could conduct optical interferometry that could be really used with this 1 meter OGS telescope he mentioned. 

New CCD Camera attached to the 1 meter telescope at OGS, Teide Observatory.
 At the moment of this interview, Mr. Kuusela was changing the camera used to record data for his investigations. It last camera component suppliers didn’t supply anymore, so a new system had to be made, says Mr. Kuusela. This is part of our work here at the OGS.

 


Your looking for an astronomy adventure? The Maroccan Sahara desert!


Astronomy trip: Grand Evasion in the Sahara desert, Morocco 1.05-04.05.2014
Our partner Ali from the Astronomy club 3AM is organizing a Grand Evasion to the Sahara desert. On  May 1 to May 4 2014, he is traveling to the Moroccan Sahara to have a look at the superb night sky of that region.
They are incorporating regional sightseeing as the Kashbah of Ait Ben haddou which is a UNESCO heritage site. Camel excursions to a bivouac in the middle of the desert sounds fabulous. Also many activities concerning astronomy. Observation of the night skies with telescope and day observation of the Sun.

If you are in the neighborhood and interested to participate in this Astronomy trip. Please visit Astronomy Marrakesh 3AM and get in touch with Ali.
https://www.facebook.com/events/760728850612019/
   

22 March 2014

On a quest to identifie, protect and preserve dark night skies, UNESCO STARLIGHT!


Me and Mr. Luis Martínez Sáez at the Starlight Initiative offices
in La laguna, Tenerfie, Canary Islands.
You have surely heard about the UNESCO’s World Heritage sites around the World?
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity.
This initiative is important right?

What about our night skies? What about our night skies over our cities? What about our night skies in our darkest spots on the planet? Should we protect it? Should we have a similar initiative for world heritage night sky sites?

Mr. Luis Martínez Sáez, Director and founder of the Starlight Foundation is asking the same questions and is eager to have the answers.
One year ago I visited Mr. Luis Martínez to interview him on the Starlight Initiative. You can read a past post on Links Through Space on the last year interview with Mr. Martinéz Sáez here: http://linksthroughspace.blogspot.fi/2013/03/what-is-starlight-foundation-interview.html
This year I went back to meet with Mr. Martínez Sáez in La Laguna, Tenerife and get a follow up on the progress of the Initiative. Last year, the Starlight initiative had 1 destination that had received the Starlight Certificate for dark skies ( Alqueva Dark Sky Reserve, Portugal) and this year the total was 17 destinations, including tourism destinations and natural reserves. 9 more destinations are in progress of negotiation. El Montsec in Catalonia Spain and El Parque Nacional Fray Jorge en chile are one of the Starlight destinations.
Here is a link to these Starlight destinations:

The first Stralight destination Alqueva Dark Sky Reserve: http://www.darkskyalqueva.com/eng/



Some background. The Starlight Foundation is the body in charge of the operational management of the Starlight Initiative, providing human resources and means for the development of the Initiative.
The Starlight Initiative was launched in 2007 from a proposal of the IAC supported by UNESCO - MaB Programme, UNWTO, IAU, and other international conventions such as UNEP-CMS, SCBD, and Ramsar Convention, and is designed as an international action in defense of the values associated with the night sky and the general right to observe the stars.
The final aim of this Initiative is to promote the importance of clear skies for the humankind, emphasizing and introducing the value of this endangered heritage for science, education, culture, technological development, nature conservation, and tourism.

Many of us have never seen a true dark sky. People living in the cities see only the night sky as a peppered, here and there, dot of light. Only the brightest stars are visible, including the planets and the Moon. The light pollution of the street lamps and other source of light infringe our seeing of the night sky. Constellations are barely visible to the naked eye. You have to go further and further out of the cities to be able to see an exceptional night sky.

It's crucial to understand that Dark Sky status does not mean turning lights off. Rather it is about working with people and Councils to create better and less wasteful lighting and promoting the night sky as an asset for the region.

This problem of preserving good quality dark night skies is a real challenge. The expansion of cities with light accumulation, slow political involvement in concrete changes and bad lighting are all major problems against the preservation of dark skies.

I have included the Starlight Foundation LOGO on my blog header to be part of this Initiative and support this Initiative. :)
Please have a look at the Starlight Foundation website:  http://www.starlight2007.net/
 

18 March 2014

Chasing the Green Flash on the coast of the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands.


Series of 162 images saved together in a Gif animation showing the Green Flash.
Shot in Tenerife, Canary Islands.
Credit: S. Lamoureux/Astronomy club Toutatis.


I have been chasing the Green Flash for some time now. I tried my luck in Cambodia on the shores of the bay of Thailand, but some strange dust veil covered the setting Sun and I couldn’t see a proper Sunset. 
Read my other post on Green Flashs: What is a Green Flash?

This time while taking a vacation on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands with my family, the infamous Green Flash revealed itself to me.
An easy downhill walk from the hotel to the beach was enjoyable every night. I have to add also that the setting Sun was just to the left of the Island of La Gomera. A few degrees more and the Sun would have set behind the island.  So I was lucky.

Sun setting just at the left of the island of La Gomera, Canary Islands.
A few degree more and the Sunset would have set behind the island.
Images taken from Tenerife, Canary Islands.
Credit: S. Lamoureux/ Astronomy club Toutatis.
I had a Canon 550D with an old 300mm teleview lens equipped with the Magic Lantern software. My plan was to take a couple of shots to focus and frame the Sun correctly and just take pictures like crazy. I used the intervalometer mode added by the Magic Lantern software and took shots every second or so. The software is loaded onto the SD card in the camera simple reboot installs the software into the camera. This type of shooting permits you to do individual picture (in this case a still picture composition of the green flash), Timelapse animations or videos and in other cases Startrail pictures as well.        

Here you can see that I used all my shots to produce two short animations of the setting Sun and a still picture composition. The animations give you a real sense of movement to it and shows well the green flash in action. On the other hand the still picture give you time to observe the phenomena in details (click on still picture to enlarge).

To do the animations I used Photoshop to crop the images, there are no colors or levels or nothing adjusted only crop to get an adequate size for the animations. Then I dropped all the images in Gimp and made a Gif animation out of it. Simple and effective!
The still composition is made from 3 images and put together in Photoshop. (No levels adjustments has been made either on the still picture). It was important to keep all the true data from the images and show the real thing. All images where recorded in RAW.

A still picture composite of 3 different images of the Green Flash.
Tenerife, Canary Islands.
Credit: S. Lamoureux/Astronomy club Toutatis.
As I was watching the Sun going down, I was looking through the camera eye to see the Green Flash in action. No knowing too much what to expect I saw the Sun setting and saw the greenish colors on top of the Sun on different occasions during the Sunset.
My first reaction was a loud laugh and a sense of achievement. I had the Green Flash in my back pocket! What a feeling! I guess the people around me felt it too.

Enjoy the animations and pictures. If you are like me and want to chase the Green Flash, just do it. It was very worth it and this is a phenomena that not much people have seen. Good luck and great Sunsets.  


18 February 2014

Cambodia 2014: Astronomy trip through photos



Angkor Wat in a pink sky with Moon
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click to enlarge)
  I travelled to Cambodia to see how much people knew about astronomy. I observed the quality of the night sky for stargazing and did some cool astronomy projects.

I explored 6 different astronomy topics in a 6 posts series here on Links Through Space. 

Thank you for Following us in our Astronomy trip through Cambodia. I hope you enjoyed the posts and pictures. You can see a list of the posts HERE

Here is our Astronomy trip through photos. You can see our pictures HERE




17 February 2014

Cambodia 2014: Chasing the Green Flash. Catch on film the last moments of the setting Sun.


Gif animation of the setting Sun into a veil of dust.  Kho Kong Cambodia 2014.
Credit: S. Lamoureux/ Astronomy Club Toutatis
  
Follow our Astronomy club Toutatis in our travels through Cambodia. A series of 6 posts on 6 different topics related to Astronomy.
One of the projects that I was really looking forward to was chasing the Green flash. This involved me being on a beach, sipping great cocktails, following the Sun while tanning, bathing in a waveless sea and be sure that the camera is ready for the Sunset when it arrived. This sounds fantastic doesn’t it? It was!

I observed the Sunset from 2 distinct places in Cambodia. First was for 2 days on the west coast of Cambodia, near the border town of Krong Koh Kong (Border with Thailand). The other place was the paradise island of Koh Rong on the coast of Sihanoukville in the southern parts of Cambodia. I stayed there for 4 days.

So, what is the Green flash? What are you looking for?
 Green flashes and green rays are optical phenomena that sometimes occur right after sunset or right before sunrise. When the conditions are right, a green spot is visible above the upper rim of the disk of the sun. The green appearance usually lasts for no more than a second or two. Watch for a flash, flicker, or brief glow of bright green light. It will appear on "top" of the sun just as the sun appears to slide below the horizon. It may also appear as a green glow on the horizon just as the sun has set.

Sun moment before setting into dust veil, Koh Rong, Cambodia
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
A minute later, the Sun sink into a dust veil above the sea.
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
How can I see it? Where can I see it?
 Choose your location wisely. As I did for the first Sunset, I walked almost 3 kilometers for what I though would have been a great place, but turned out to be to far and to “remote” for any contingencies. The second Sunset I saw from the island Koh Rong, was straight in front of the bungalow I rented. This gave me the opportunity to have all my gear at hand without carrying.  I could sit down on a chair and even have a small table where I could lay my things on. Location is everything!
The green flash can only be seen over a distant horizon that has a distinct edge to it. This makes the ocean the best place to view the green flash from.

What camera and lens did I use? What other gimmicks I used?
 I used a Canon 550D and an Iphone. For the lens I used Canon EFS18-55mm lens and an old 300mmTele-Universar lens. I also used Magic Lantern Software for timelapse shooting. A light tripod with level was very handy.

First Sunset in Krong Koh Kong
You can see Sunspots on the surface of the Sun
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
What did I photograph? What surprised me?
 I used Canon 18-55mm lens to take the Sunset in beautiful postcard landscape pictures.
The f=300 Tele-Universar was to shoot the Sun very tight on the edge of the see.
I also used the magic lantern software to shoot with interval timing, this gave me the opportunity to shoot every second when the crucial seconds of the setting Sun would come and reveal the green flash. This amounted to hundreds of pictures which I saved in small .gif animations. These animations are small time-lapses of the setting Sun.

The most surprising weather related phenomena that I encountered was a thick veil of dust just above the sea that impeded the view of the setting Sun. The Sun appeared to sink into the “fog” and therefore, we couldn’t see a proper Sunset setting on the sea. This dust veil was seen in both locations where I shot the Sunset. 6 days of shooting, 6 days of dust veil.

In conclusion this chase of the green flash on the coasts and islands of Cambodia was simply unbelievable. Even though the illusive green flash eluded me this time, this whole adventure gave me lots of experience on the Sun, brought me to white sandy beach islands and most of all started a new hobby for me: the chasing of the green flash.
Continue reading post no. 6 Cambodia 2014: Astronomy trip through PHOTOS


16 February 2014

Cambodia 2014: Southern night sky stars and Constellations. A delight for us living in Finland.


Southern Constellations with Star Canopus
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S.Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
  Follow our Astronomy club Toutatis in our travels through Cambodia. A series of 6 posts on 6 different topics related to Astronomy.
 

Cambodia lies at 11 degrees latitude above the Equator (Phnom Penh 11°33′N 104°55′E). This means that southern Constellations are seen from here. While staying on the island of Koh Rong near the coast of Sihanoukville, I took some pictures of the night sky that revealed some southern Constellations. Guided by the brightest star in the night sky Sirius, I knew that all lying below it would be southern stars and Constellations. A great opportunity for me to shoot southern Constellations.

The picture above shows us many southern Constellations. Namely the Constellations of Vela, Puppis, Carina, Pyxis, Columba and Pictor. I have to say it was the first time I saw all these Constellations and stars within. For a northern observer, this was a delight!

Also one star took over the others and shown brightly in the night sky. This star was Canopus (α Car), the second brightest star in the night sky after Sirius. Canopus's visual magnitude is −0.72. This F-type supergiant have been described as a pure white while seen with the naked eye, but some observers have perceived it as yellow-white owing to its being located low in the sky and hence subject to atmospheric effects. Canopus is known in the ancient Hindu astronomy and astrology as Agastya. Maybe some clues of this lies in the temples of Angkor Wat as the Hindu astronomy was incorporated into the building of the temples.

The same picture as above except for the Constellation lines
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S.Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
The Constellations of Carina, Vela, Puppis and Pyxis where part the same Constellation of Argo Navis before Nicolas-Louis La Caille in 1750 divided it into 4 respective Constellations. These Constellations, especially the Carina and Vela Constellations are in the middle of the Milky Way, which offers many beautiful Open Star Clusters and Nebulas. One of them is Eta Carinae Nebula (NGC 3372) in the Constellation of Carina.

The Constellation Pyxis lies in the plane of the Milky Way, although part of the eastern edge is dark, with material obscuring our galaxy arm you can still see some good objects.
You will find an almost edge-on spiral Galaxy (NGC 2613), a planetary nebula (NGC 2818) which lies within a dim open cluster of magnitude 8.2 and three stars with confirmed planetary systems (HD 73256, HD 73267 and Gliese 317).

Stargazing on paradise island Koh Rong
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S.Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
The Constellations of Columba and Pictor are small and faint constellations. They are not particularly of great interest, except for a couple of objects that distinguish them selves from the others. Kapteyn's Star in the Constellation of Pictor, a nearby red dwarf at the distance of 12.78 light years, has a magnitude of 8.8. It has the largest proper motion of any star in the sky after Barnard's Star. Moving around the Milky Way in the opposite direction to most other stars, it may have originated in a dwarf galaxy that was merged into our galaxy, with the main remnant being the Omega Centauri globular cluster.
 
Also the Constellation Pictor has attracted attention in recent years because of its second-brightest star Beta Pictoris, 63.4 light-years distant, which is surrounded by an unusual dust disk rich in carbon, as well as an extrasolar planet.
Columba is the constellation that is at the solar antapex - the Earth (and Sun) is moving away from its direction as the solar system moves through space.

In conclusion, the Southern Constellations mentioned above are full of beautiful celestial bodies and literally a treasure for us observers in Finland. I feel very privilege to have witness these stars and Constellations. Hope I will be able to see and photograph them in the near future.

Continue reading post no.5 Cambodia 2014: Chasing the Green Flash. Catch on film the lastmoments of the setting Sun.
 
 

15 February 2014

Cambodia 2014: Ancient Astronomy, Angkor Wat, City built with astronomic measurements to mimic the Gods in the Universe.



Central tower of Angkor Wat, Cambodia
with full Moon.
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)


 Follow us in our Astronomy trip through Cambodia. A series of 6 posts on Astronomy in Cambodia. Please enjoy the posts and pictures here on Links Through Space.


Angkor Wat was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yasodharapura present-day Angkor, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple.
Breaking from the Shaivism tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious center since its foundation. The Khmers adhered to the Indian belief that a temple must be built according to a mathematical system in order for it to function in harmony with the universe. Distances between certain architectural elements of the temple reflect numbers related to Indian mythology and cosmology.

The sheer size of the place leaves visitors in awe and the complex designs illustrate the skills of long gone priest architects.  Every spare inch has been carved with intricate works of art. The scale of Angkor Wat enabled the Khmer to give full expression to religious symbolism. It is, above all else, a microcosm of the Hindu universe. As a brilliant example of the synthesis of astronomy and architecture at Angkor Wat, the solar axes of the temple lead directly to the central sanctuary, a sanctum sanctorum devoted to the supreme solar god, Lord Vishnu. Vishnu manifests as one of the solar months, and the sun itself is thought to be his emanation.

2 picture composition: Aspara in Moon light
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
Although the Sun gains stature through its conjunction with the center of Angkor Wat, Vishnu, and the king, it is worth noting that lunar alignments are also recorded along the western and eastern axis of the temple. As the measurements of solar and lunar time cycles were built into the sacred space of Angkor Wat, this divine mandate to rule was anchored to consecrated chambers and corridors meant to perpetuate the king's power and to honor and placate the deities manifest in the heavens above.

The solar and lunar alignments at Angkor Wat were alignments with the gods, alignments that tied the nation to the heavens above, and alignments that imbued the king with the power to rule by divine association.
Here are concrete astronomical observations you can see at Angkor Wat:
1. The rising sun appears aligned on equinox and solstice days with the western entrance of Angkor Wat.
2. The movements of the moon can be observed from a variety of positions within the temple, and lunar cycles may have been recorded in the three sets of libraries.
3. The bas reliefs of the third gallery can be understood in relation to the movements of the sun, which establish their counterclockwise direction.
4. The measurements of the temple appear proportional to calendric andcosmological time cycles.

Angkor Wat temple with rising full Moon.
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
Many of these observations I haven’t seen, but I understand well the concept of making these temples an observing platform, in other words An Observatory. When you settle your feet at a specific location, the Universe, in a sense revolves around you. With some patience and time you can start to notice patterns and Recursions that you can calculate and even predict.

In conclusion for me, the most intriguing aspects of the ancient Khmer Civilization was their understanding of their place in the cosmos, and how the placement of the temples mirrored so many of the celestial movements. This same ancient Khmer civilization that brought me to Cambodia to see if the knowledge had stayed in the people of modern Cambodia. Unfortunately it not seem the case.
Continue reading post no.4 Cambodia 2014: Southern night sky stars and Constellations. A delight for us living in Finland.

Have a look at our Pictures from  the Astronomy trip in Cambodia.

Links Through Space:
Great reading about Astronomy in Angkor Wat
Subhash Kak article: The Solar Equation in Angkor Wat
Great article on topic: Sacred Angkor


14 February 2014

Cambodia 2014: Assessment of the night sky seeing and light pollution in visited places in Cambodia.


Map of places visited in Cambodia
In our trip I visited many towns and cities across different regions of Cambodia. The project was to assess the night sky seeing and to see the amount of light pollution within the cities in Cambodia. Cambodia was not what I expected. I thought it would have been clear air, moving weather and fresh dry skies, but the dry weather after the Monsoon brought dusty skies that impeded the seeing greatly.

I visited 5 different places; the capital Phnom Penh, a city on the west coast named Krong Koh Kong, Battambang, the second largest city in Cambodia, Siem riep, the gateway to Angkor Wat and a paradise island on the coast of Sihanoukville called Koh Rong.

Phnom Penh by night. The night sky is dusty
and light pollution impeeds seeing.
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
Obviously in Phnom Penh the light pollution is an issue. I would say in a moonless night the stars we see are of Apparent Magnitude 1.7. In this case Alnilam in the belt of the constellation Orion (based on photographic assessment) was our star of reference. In a few words, the city centers all around the world are all the same. They are filled with light and dust that isn’t the ideal for stargazing.

In the outskirts of Krong Koh Kong, on the west coast of Cambodia (+/- 200 km from the capital) the night sky was kind of better. What I mean by “kind of better” is that the night sky was clear, but you could always discern a veil of dust in the air. Let say that even if those parts are pretty dark, it looked like what I saw in the capital.

Battambang was a large city with its own problems. The light pollution was considerable and the dust veil didn’t give up. This is where we observed the Moon with Dr. Vith and his students. We had a clear night sky for the observation session, which was good. The night sky was comparable to Phnom Penh even though we were in a darker area. Battambang was a nice city, but didn’t have the night sky charms I was looking for.

Angkor Wat with almost full Moon, Jupiter
and the Constellation of Orion.
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
The gateway to Angkor, Siem riep was another brightly led city and gave not much hope for stargazing. But the grounds of Angkor Wat was very much the contrary.  In the midst of the temples, the dark and stars ruled the night sky. Only problem was that near the horizon you couldn’t see nothing, the infamous dust veil was covering all the lower part of the sky. I manage to get some nice pictures, I would say this was probably the best night sky I have seen in Cambodia yet.

Hold your horses! The last place I visited was a paradise island on the coast of Sihanoukville. The island is called Koh Rong and you will not find any roads, any car or any street lamp for that matter. The light pollution is non existent and gives this island maybe the only place in Cambodia with this statue. This was by far the best night sky in Cambodia.

Bungalow in starry night on paradise
island Koh Rong, Cambodia
Credit: Astronomy club Toutatis/S. Lamoureux
(Click on picture to enlarge)
In conclusion, the night sky in Cambodia was very erratic. The dusty horizon was the worst. The dust veil was omnipresent. The light pollution in bigger cities took the fun out of stargazing. My assessment of the night sky in Cambodia is 4 out of 10 (4/10).
Not very promising, but if you really want to do some stargazing in Cambodia head for the paradise island of Koh Rong.
 
Continue reading  post no. 3 Cambodia 2014: Ancient Astronomy: Angkor Wat, City built with astronomical measurements to mimic the Gods in the Universe.

Continue reading  post no. 3 Cambodia 2014: Ancient Astronomy, Angkor Wat, City built with astronomic measurements to mimic the Gods in the Universe.